时间:2019-12-12 09:19:44 作者:海蒂和爷爷 浏览量:63855

He holds his life by charms secure,

Where are a few poor sinners saved by grace.蓝色背景图 m8076银河娱乐We have heard a good deal of Norwich. When the summer comes, some enterprising journalist manages to find his way there, and if he has a copy of Evelyn, waxes eloquent over its gardens, and market-place, and ancient castle, and its memories of Sir Thomas Browne. I write of the Norwich of to-day鈥攐f living Norwich鈥攁 city with a population of more than a hundred thousand鈥攖hat has renewed its youth鈥攖hat is marching on like John Brown鈥檚 soul; a Norwich that was, as I first remember it, a seat of Parliamentary and political corruption, of vice and ignorance, of apathy and sloth. It is a grand old city, none grander anywhere in England. It is a place to me of pleasant memories, and the stranger within its gates must admit the charm of its grey towers and churches, its cathedral, its well-wooded suburbs extending over a wide range of hills. In that respect some claim for Norwich that it resembles Jerusalem. From all I can make out I should be inclined to give Norwich the preference. It has fewer Jews and not so many fleas.m8076银河娱乐Remains around Maldon testify to the antiquity of the place. On the west side are the remains of a camp formed by Edward the Elder as far back as 920. Near the town are the remains of a Lepers鈥 Hospital, which makes one note with thankfulness that, thanks to sanitary science in England, we have no need of such buildings now, and we rejoice that the good old times are gone. By the side of the river, about a mile from the town, are the remains of Beeleigh Abbey, founded for monks of the Premonstratensian order in 1180; considerable remains still exist, but have been much altered in the process of converting the building into a farmhouse, still there is a good deal remaining well worthy the attention of the antiquary, though at one time the chapter-house, which has a fine groined roof, was used as a pig-sty. In the Abbey was buried Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, in 1483. One of the Maldon churches has a triangular tower. It is said that only in Italy is there another tower of the same kind. I may also state, as one of the peculiarities of Maldon, that the custom of Borough English, by means of which the youngest son succeeds to the copyhold estates of his father, still prevails there. Thus altogether a pleasant ancient flavour attaches to the place, in spite of its Reform Club, which dates from 1874. One might do worse than live at Maldon, where good houses are to be had at a bargain, and where in the summer-time, far from the wicked world, there is a good deal of boating, and where in the winter time, in the coming glacial era, which Sir Robert Ball confidently predicts as reserved for the people of England, you may skate as far as Chelmsford, a consummation by no means devoutly to be wished. For bicycles Maldon is by no means favourable, incredible as it may seem to those who will persist in believing that Essex is a flat country. There are two hills in the town, one of which is pronounced to be the most dangerous hill in all Essex for bicyclists.m8076银河娱乐

m8076银河娱乐鈥擳hat barber is no more, and I know not what has become of his sign. As an object lesson in history, undying interest attaches to Framlingham Castle and its adjacent church. The castle must have been one of the largest in England. As our Quaker poet, Bernard Barton, wrote鈥攎8076银河娱乐My bellows have quite lost their wind;m8076银河娱乐

In the year 1727 there was born in Sudbury, and baptized in the Independent Meeting there, Thomas Gainsborough, one of the earliest and the greatest of English painters. The family were Dissenters, and in the meeting-house, now under the care of the Rev. Ira Bosely, who seems very happy and successful in his new sphere of labour, are the memorials of two of them who were buried in the graveyard attached. There are two bequests of the Gainsborough family for the support of the minister for the time being, of which the present incumbent made favourable mention when I saw him the other day, in the comfortable manse attached to the meeting-house. One of the items in the ancient account-book seemed to be curious. It was as follows: 鈥淔our shillings for tobacco.鈥 I have only to assume in the good old times our pious ancestors had an idea of Pleasant Sunday Afternoon Services, and for that purpose possibly the tobacco had been acquired. Be that as it may, we may be sure the Gainsborough family were as remarkable as any that then attended on the means of grace. In person, Mr. Gainsborough鈥檚 father is represented as a fine old man, who wore his hair carefully parted, and was remarkable for the whiteness and regularity of his teeth. According to the custom of the last century he always wore a sword and was an adroit fencer, possessing the fatal facility of using the weapon in either hand. He introduced into Sudbury the straw trade from Coventry, and p. 53he managed to keep it in his own hands. He had a large family of five sons and four daughters. One of the latter married a Dissenting Minister at Bath. One son, John, was a great mechanical genius, and invented wings, by means of which he essayed to fly, but, to the amusement of the spectators, found himself, instead of soaring into the air, dropped in a ditch by the way. Humphrey Gainsborough, the painter鈥檚 second brother, settled as a Dissenting Minister at Henley-on-Thames. Of him, the celebrated Edgeworth, the father of the equally celebrated daughter, says he had never known a man of a more inventive mind. Thomas, the artist, must have inherited something of his artistic skill from his mother, for she herself loved to paint fruit and flowers, but with the boy, painting became the one great object of his life, and he was always at it, even when he should have been studying at the ancient grammar school where he was a pupil; and thus it is Sudbury has two great men to boast of鈥擳homas Gainsborough, the artist, and Simon de Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was beheaded by the populace in Wat Tyler鈥檚 rebellion, and whose skull is still shown you in St. Gregory鈥檚 Church. I have known many thick skulls in East Anglia, but surely that of the martyred Archbishop must have been one of the thickest to have lasted all this time.Lying in a valley surrounded by hills, up which the town is gradually climbing, and watered by the picturesque Orwell, which elevates the town to the dignity of a port, and within little more than an hour and a half鈥檚 run from London by the Great Eastern Railway, Ipswich may claim to be a place well worth visiting, while to the trader it is known and appreciated as a busy and thriving town. When I first knew it鈥攁t a time a little antecedent to the advent of the illustrious Mr. Pickwick鈥攊t was not much of a place to look at. With the exception of the space opposite the Town Hall, a handsome building all of the modern time, the people seemed sadly hampered for want of room. In this respect the place has been wonderfully improved of late, as much as any town in Her Majesty鈥檚 dominions; not even Birmingham more. It was one of the first places to have an Arboretum, which is well kept up for the health and comfort of its people. Then by the river a pleasant promenade has been formed, where, when the tide comes up from Harwich, bringing with it a faint touch of the briny, you may fancy that you are by the side of the sea itself. That River Orwell is a sight in itself, and is utilised by the young and vigorous as regards boating and bathing in a way conducive to the development of health and muscle alike. The corn market at Ipswich is one of the most important in the kingdom, and the public buildings are numerous, and p. 29boast not a little of architectural skill, as, for instance, the Grammar School, the theatre, Tacket Street Chapel鈥攐ne of the oldest representatives of Nonconformity in the place鈥攖he pile of buildings forming the offices of The East Anglian Daily Times鈥攖he most successful of the East Anglian dailies, which would be a credit even to the metropolis. One of the handsomest piles of buildings in the town is that occupied by the Museum, the Schools of Art and Science, and the Victorin Free Library. Since their completion in 1881, the whole of the valuable books and arch?logical treasures belonging to the Corporation have been classified and attractively arranged for inspection by visitors. The old Judge鈥檚 chambers have now been turned into a club, which supplies a want felt in such a place. I think Ipswich was one of the first towns to start a Mechanics鈥 Institute, still in vigorous existence; while all over Europe you may meet with agricultural machines that had their birth in the great works of Ransomes, Sims, and Jefferies鈥攏ames dear to the farmer all the land over. Ipswich is now also becoming celebrated for its boots and shoes, while its tasteful shops indicate a considerable amount of intelligence and wealth as existing among its people to the present day.m8076银河娱乐Tell them the men that placed him herem8076银河娱乐

So far it is clear Gainsborough feels the helpless and unsatisfactory character of his past life. We then have an insight鈥攏ot very pleasant鈥攊nto his family relationships. He speaks of his wife as 鈥渨eak and good, and never much forward to humour his happiness.鈥 His eldest daughter, Peggy, 鈥渋s a sensible good girl, but insolent and proud in her behaviour to me at times.鈥 Then his second daughter, Molly, he detects apparently writing letters to a Mr. Fischer, against whom the painter had long been on his guard. 鈥淚 have never suffered that worthy gentleman ever to be in their company since I came to London, and behold, while I had my eye upon Peggy, the other slyboots has, I suppose, been the object all along.鈥 And Molly wins the day and marries Mr. Fischer after all. Of domestic felicity the great artist seems to have had but a small share. Perhaps that was his own fault.m8076银河娱乐I find Framlingham itself but little changed. There was a barber who, in my youth, had a picture of Absalom caught by his hair in the wood, while David cries鈥攎8076银河娱乐

Modern Sudbury seems to know but little of her most distinguished son. It is true that he left it at the age of eighteen to take up his residence at Ipswich, then at Bath, and afterwards in London, where he was somewhat of a rival to Sir Joshua Reynolds, and where he achieved fame and fortune as one of the founders of the Royal Academy. It is true that he sleeps not on the banks of the Stour, but on those of the Royal Thames at Kew, the village dear to his patron, George III. But Sudbury is singularly careless of the artist鈥檚 memory. As I passed the Liberal Club I accosted a respectable individual鈥擨 assume he was such, as he was evidently a member of the club鈥攁nd in answer to my enquiries (he was an elderly man) he said, 鈥淚 have lived in Sudbury all my life, and have no idea where Gainsborough was born,鈥 but he did point me out the residence of Mr. Duport, a relative of the artist鈥檚, and where some of his family portraits were preserved; but I am unable to state whether they are there now, as the house was shut up. There ought to be a good many of Gainsborough鈥檚 early attempts to be found in Sudbury, as he was very liberal in giving them to his friends. It is not too late for Sudbury to wipe off the reproach of her neglect. It is not too late to mark the sites illustrated by his genius; or to do honour to the memory of her greatest glory; or to show to the lads of the Grammar School there what one of its alumni did, and how he did it, and what he became. In these days culture and education are supposed to work wonders. In the career of Gainsborough, we note the success of one who had little of either, but who did wonders, nevertheless, by his industry and genius alone. We may note that after Gainsborough left his native town he rarely seems to have visited the place, only occasionally to give his vote on the Tory side.驱蚊手环有用吗 My vice is in the dust all laid;m8076银河娱乐Am I not right in calling such a visit an international one? Such visits are the true peacemakers, and strengthen the bonds of unity between nations better than can be done in any other way. Mr. Alderman Gurteen is a fair representative of what is best in a social and commercial and political and religious life. Old Haverhill could not have sent the new Haverhill a better specimen of the English citizen of to-day. The more we send such men to America on international visits, and the more America sends such men to us鈥攚hatever politicians on both sides the Atlantic may say or do to create bad feeling鈥攖he stronger and more lasting will be the tie that makes England and America鈥攎other and daughter鈥攐ne in heart and aim. Haverhill is deeply associated with Puritan History and the Pilgrim Fathers. Its greatest preacher was the Rev. John Ward, who is still commemorated by a tomb in Haverhill Church. One of his sons, Samuel, was a town preacher to the Corporation of Ipswich for thirty years. Another celebrated preacher was the saintly Samuel Fairclough, who was born at Haverhill in 1594, and passed from Cambridge p. 62University to become successively Lecturer at Lynn and Clare, which latter post he vacated to become Rector of Kedington, until he was ejected thence in 1692 by the iniquitous Act of Uniformity.m8076银河娱乐

m8076银河娱乐When I first knew the castle it was used as a poor-house. The home of the Bigods and the Howards is p. 50utilised in this way no longer. The castle hall is now devoted to the recovery of small debts and other equally local matters. In the good old times the nobles settled debts, small or great, in a much easier way.p. 35鈥擝ut this security was the means of his death. In October, 1811, there was a great storm on the Orwell, and he was driven in his boat on the mud. He refused to leave his vessel, though advised and implored to do so. The ebb of the tide drew his boat into deep water, and he was drowned.

m8076银河娱乐The country round the old town鈥攖he town of Gainsborough鈥檚 boyhood鈥攎ust have been singularly picturesque. The boy painter saw in it a beauty which he never forget; he told Thicknesse, his first patron, that 鈥渢here was not a picturesque clump of trees, nor even a single tree of any beauty; no, nor hedge-row, stem or root,鈥 in or around his native town, which was not from his earliest years treasured in his memory. It is interesting to note the painter鈥檚 progress. As you walk from the railway you come to Friar Street, where the painter married and took a house for a short while. A few steps further on bring you to Sepulchre Street, and you see the site of the house where he was born, opposite which is now the Christopher Inn. There was a large garden behind the house; and it was there the young artist sketched the face of the culprit whom he watched steal his father鈥檚 pears. That was his first attempt at portrait-painting, and a very successful one, as it led to the conviction of the culprit. The Pear Tree is still shown. Apparently Sudbury is famous for its pears. I saw many of them in the gardens belonging to some of the better houses. It was a pleasure for me to attempt to follow in the artist鈥檚 steps. For instance, I made my way to Brandon Wood, where the poet loved to go sketching. If the town is improved so as to be almost unrecognisable, the features of the country remain the same; nature builds more enduringly than man. There are trees in Brandon Wood that might have been there in Gainsborough鈥檚 time. Over the Essex border, a couple of miles off, is a landscape which still remains as it is drawn in our National p. 56Gallery. His paintings of a view near Sudbury and a neighbouring church are more or less still true to life.m8076银河娱乐I was struck with the good sense of his answer. Ah, thought I, as we parted, how much happier we would all be if we did as the decayed tradesman did. The conversation took place opposite the grand Abbey-gate of the ancient town of Bury St. Edmunds. No Englishman should wander off to the Continent until he has first visited Bury St. Edmunds, a town full of busy life, peopled with more than 16,000 inhabitants, which rejoices in a rich historic past, and which, especially if you are there on a market-day, strikes the stranger as a place of immense activity and bustle. It is eighty-three miles from Liverpool-street, and you can see all its lions鈥攁nd they are very numerous鈥攊n a day. On the eastern ridge of it鈥攁s Carlyle wrote in Past and Present鈥攕till runs, long, black, and massive, a range of monastic ruins. Its chief claim to fame is that it was the burial place of the young Saxon king known as Edmund, who, in 870, was cruelly murdered by the Danes at Hoxne, not far off. After the lapse of many years, the body was brought p. 22to Bury, where it was placed in the renowned Abbey, which owes much of its greatness to Edward the Confessor, and which for more than six hundred years remained one of the chief ecclesiastical centres of medi?val England. Piety, wealth, and superstition did much for the place. Its churchyard is one of the most picturesque in all the land. Its churches are marvels of beauty, and one of them contains the tomb of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, and third daughter of Henry VII. of England. Bury is famous as being the spot where the Barons met before enforcing the signature of Magna Charta by King John, who, on his return from France in 1214, met the nobles at Bury, and confirmed on oath a charter restoring the laws enacted by Edward the Confessor, and abolishing the arbitrary Norman code. You have to pay sixpence to visit the Abbey grounds, which are left in good order, and which ought to be thrown open to the public; but many people will not grudge the money when they come to the spot where is an inscription denoting that Cardinal Langton and the Barons swore at the altar that they would obtain from King John the satisfaction of Magna Charta, and another, close by, giving the names and titles of the twenty-five Barons who thus met. A few yards off are the ruins of the refectory where was held the Parliament which decided on the impeachment of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Many Parliaments were held at Bury; many kings and queens and mighty personages came there. It had its martyrs鈥攍ike Coping, who was hanged for not believing the Prayer-book, and Lawes, an innocent clergyman, who, with forty others, was condemned and executed for witchcraft. The Jews, also, were very badly treated when, as usual, they were charged with the murder of a Christian child. The house where the chief Jew lived is still to be seen near the Market Place. It is now utilised by the police, who will shortly be removed to a finer building which is being erected in the neighbourhood.m8076银河娱乐


Thou wouldst not have died,In the churchyard of Hadleigh there are no monuments which require description. There is, however a curious inscription on a headstone on the south-east side leading to the market-place regarding the name and fame of one John Turner, a blacksmith, who died 1715.



IV. A GRAND MEDI?VAL TOWN.The Church has been once at any rate in danger, that is in 1800, when a great part of the building fell down. Hence arose a well-known local rhyme.



The religious history of Colchester is deeply interesting. That unfortunate Puritan, Bastwicke lived at the Red House, Red Lane. Matthew Newcomen, one of the Puritan divines who took part in the Smectymnian Controversy, was the son of a rector of Trinity. His brother Thomas, a Royalist, lived to be a Prebendary at Lincoln at the Restoration. Colchester has done much for Nonconformity. It was one of the earliest cities to do battle for religious freedom and the rights of conscience. As far back as 1428 we find the keeper of Colchester Castle empowered to search out and imprison persons suspected of 鈥渉eresie or Lollardie.鈥 In Queen Mary鈥檚 days fourteen men and eight women were brought from Colchester to London like a flock of sheep, but bound or chained together, to appear before Bonner, on account of religion; but several were burnt there at different times. The first certain account of the Baptists of Colchester is that of Thomas Lamb, about the year 1630, who was one of the victims of Archbishop Laud. For some time Baptists and P?do-Baptists seem to have worshipped together here; they p. 8in time separated, and the present flourishing cause, under Rev. E. Spurrier, celebrated its bi-centenary last year. From a MS. account in Dr. Williams鈥檚 library, we learn that in 1715 there were three Non-conformist congregations in Colchester鈥攐ne Independant, one Presbyterian (with a total of 1,500 hearers), and one Baptist (with 200). In the schoolroom of the Baptist church at Eld-street is a fine portrait of the Captain Murrell whose noble rescue of a shipwrecked crew in a stormy sea was the admiration of the whole civilised world a year or two since. And it rightly hangs there, for as a boy he was brought up in its Sunday-school. Close to the Baptist church in Eld-lane is the well-known Congregational church, a new and handsome structure, of which Rev. T. Robinson is the pastor.He dreams that wizards leagued with hell,


In the old times Ipswich must have been a much more picturesque place than it is to-day. All its old records are religiously preserved by a worthy townsman, Mr. John Glyde, in his Illustrations of Old Ipswich, a handsome work, which is a credit to the town, and which ought to find a place in the library of East Anglians wealthy enough to purchase it. He p. 32writes lovingly of its gates and walls indicating the lamentable state of insecurity by which our forefathers were embarrassed in those good old times, when the Curfew Bell tolled every evening at eight o鈥檆lock. 鈥淭here is, perhaps,鈥 says an antiquarian writer, 鈥渘o house in the kingdom which, for its size, is more curiously or quaintly ornamented than the ancient house still standing in the Butter Market.鈥 The tradition is that Charles II. was hidden for awhile in that house after his defeat at Worcester. Be that as it may, the Ipswich traders, like John Gilpin, were men of credit and renown, and Fuller, in the seventeenth century, spoke of the number of wealthy merchant houses in Ipswich. It was in the reign of Elizabeth, remarks Mr. Glyde, that Ipswich seems to have attained the zenith of its fame. There is scarcely a branch of foreign commerce carried on at the present time, with the exception of trade with China, that was not prosecuted with more or less entirety in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. At that time Ipswich was much richer in shipping than Yarmouth, Southampton, or Lynn. Foreign weavers discovered the advantage of using English wool, and the gold of Flanders found its way into the pockets of English traders. The town still boasts a memorial of Cardinal Wolsey鈥檚 munificent liberality. One of its representatives was no less a distinguished person than Bacon鈥

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One of the oldest towns in Suffolk is Hadleigh. You take the train at Liverpool-street; at Bentley change on to a branch line, and in twenty minutes you are there. If we are to believe the annalist Asser, its origin is to be traced as far back as Alfred the Great鈥檚 time, or the latter half of the ninth century. Asser relates that the Danish Chief Guthrum, after having been defeated by King Alfred, embraced Christianity, was appointed governor of East Anglia; that he divided, cultivated, and inhabited the district, and that when he died he was buried in the royal town called Headlega. Be that as it may, in the ancient church of Hadleigh, according to popular belief, there still remains his tomb. The principal event in connection with Hadleigh is that there Dr. Taylor was burnt to death by the Roman Catholics. The little town, says Fox, first heard of the pure Gospel of Christ from the lips of the Rev. Thomas Bilney, who preached there with great earnestness, and whose work was greatly blessed, numbers of men and women becoming convinced of the errors and idolatries of Popery, and gladly embracing the Christian faith. After the martyrdom of Bilney, Dr. Rowland Taylor was appointed vicar. He possessed the friendship of Cranmer, and it was through him that he obtained his living. In Queen Mary鈥檚 time the Church was no place for such as he. He p. 16was hauled up before Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester. The Bishop, with other bishops, sent him back to Hadleigh to burn to death. 鈥淥n his way Dr. Taylor was very joyful; he spoke many things to the sheriff and yeomen of the guard that conducted him, and often moved them to weep by his earnest calling upon them to repent and turn to the true religion.鈥 At Hadleigh he was burnt, much to the sorrow of his flock, who revered and loved him. A very modest monument marks the site of the scene of the martyrdom and the triumph, as it then seemed, of Popery and arbitrary power. On the monument, which stands on a grass plot guarded by rails, is an inscription to the memory of Dr. Taylor, ending as follows:


Chelmsford seems early to have struggled after a Reformed Church. Strype tells us of one, William Maldon, who learned to read in order that he might study the Bible for himself, and there discovered how idolatrous it was to kneel to the crucifix, much to the anger of his father, who beat him till he was almost dead. A little later we hear of George Eagles, who, for preaching, was hanged, drawn and quartered at Chelmsford, in Queen Mary鈥檚 reign, and whose head was set up in the market-place on a long pole. Archbishop Laud found many victims in Essex. p. 4One was Thomas Hooker, Fellow of Emanuel College, Cambridge, and lecturer at Chelmsford, where by his preaching he wrought a great reformation, not only in the town but in all the country round. Happily for himself, Hooker escaped to America, where he died. When the Quakers appeared, they were sorely handled by those who ought to have known better; for instance, in July 1655, there was a day of general fasting, prayer, and public collection of money for the poor persecuted Protestants of Piedmont. John Parnell, the Quaker, embraced that opportunity for disturbing the people, and for this he was tried at Chelmsford, and sent to Colchester Castle where he died. One of the ejected ministers at Chelmsford, Mark Mott, is described as an able preacher. The congregational cause in Chelmsford, dates from the time of John Reeve, who took out a license for a Presbyterian Meeting-house, in 1692. Edward Rogers, an ejected minister, succeeded him. Before the year 1716, a meeting-house had been erected, and at that time a separation took place, which led to the erection of another meeting-house. In 1716, the pastor at the old meeting was Nathaniel Hickford. The congregation then consisted of seven hundred hearers, of whom twenty are described as having votes for the county, and eighteen as gentlemen. The first pastor at the new meeting was Richard, the father of the well-known Nathaniel Lardner. In 1763, the two churches united, but not long after they separated again. The new meeting, which is still in the London road, was for some time under the pastoral care of the Rev. George Wilkinson, but lately resigned, and his place is filled by the Rev. MacDougal Mundle, whose popularity argues well for the cause with which he is connected, and the church over which he presides.